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Pedestrian planning and design [by] John J. Fruin. - - Limited View | HathiTrust Digital Library | HathiTrust Digital Library. Skip to main. HathiTrust. Contents. Title. Pedestrian planning and design / [by] John J. Fruin. Author. Fruin, John J. Published. New York: Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and. Language: English. Highway Research Record. Identifier: pedestrian-los. Identifier-ark: ark://t6j15zw8r. Ocr: ABBYY FineReader
One-quarter of these passengers spend an additional 10 s waiting in line to download transit tokens. What is the average area per person during the peak min period? Note that t is 25 s or 0. The New York City Planning Commission requires this type of analysis as part of the environmental impact statement EIS procedure for the approval of new building projects.
For example, in the arrival mode at heavily used transit platforms, stairs and escalators will be used to maximum capacity until all arriving passengers are accommodated.
It is important in this condition to evaluate average passenger waiting times, queue lengths and queuing areas, and the overall platform clearance time. Minimum standards for these conditions could consist of clearance of the platform before the next train arrival and average pedestrian waiting times not to exceed the escalator trip time or stair-use time.
Analysts and students are encouraged to make their own observations of the use of pedestrian facilities, potentially to modify analytical techniques to provide a better model of observed conditions or service standards for levels of crowding and convenience appropriate to local norms. Two persons walking abreast require a width of 5 ft 1. Also, LOS standards are based on the net effective width of the walkway, requiring that 6 in mm be added to each edge to account for the avoidance of walls.
Wherever possible, wider stairs should be provided. The net effective width of stairways is clear distance between handrails. Stairways in transit applications are subjected to two different types of demands.
In the departure peak, demands are more nearly uniform throughout the peak period. In the arrival peak, however, large numbers of passengers can be unloaded from trains in very short periods, causing stairs to be overloaded and queuing to develop. During these periods stairways will operate at full capacity, or LOS E. In the arrival situation, pedestrian delay times, queue size, and platform clearance times become convenience measures rather than crowding density.
FARE-CONTROL AREAS Time—space analysis of fare-control areas, for example, to determine the average pedestrian LOS during the min peak period, requires a determination of the effective usable area in the fare-control section; the total numbers of people passing through the section; the proportion of those downloading tickets, requesting information, or waiting at turnstiles; and the predicted times for performing these activities.
Average area per person and LOS for the peak period are determined by adding all the various demands in pedestrian minutes and dividing it into the TS supply. Passenger distribution on the platform may not be uniform, and this might have to be taken into consideration.
Some platforms may also need to accommodate passengers transferring across the platform from other trains. Platforms can be analyzed for a peak period or for the headway in minutes between trains. Passenger time—space demand consists of the product of the number of passengers using the platform and their average walk and wait times. It should be emphasized that the area per pedestrian and LOS for the platform is an average for the analysis period.
It is advisable, particularly where platforms are heavily used, to examine the maximum occupancy of the platform that occurs just before train doors open to accept passengers. If this maximum occupancy is below queuing LOS C, it is desirable to add train service and reduce headways to avoid potentially dangerous crowding.
LOS standards have also been developed for waiting areas, such as transit platforms, based on pedestrian densities and relative degrees of mobility within the waiting area. Care must be taken when applying these standards to facilities where the demand is such that capacity will invariably be exceeded for short periods.
An example is a transit platform where potentially more than passengers could be discharged onto the platform in less than a minute. In such facilities, platform clearance times or average pedestrian delay may provide a more realistic standard of service, since typically all facilities would be operating at maximum capacity.
Typically, pedestrians will keep about 6 in mm away from walls and columns in indoor environments and up to 18 in from walls and curbs in outdoor locations. Where there are doors opening into corridors, persons accessing change machines, or other functions that would reduce the net effective width available for movement, added reductions may be necessary. Flow variable 5 or 0. Refer to Eq. Stairway volume data must also be applied to the effective width of the stairway, not the overall width.
The net effective width of the stairway is the clear distance between handrails.
Example: Determine the width of stairs required on a ft m -long, ft 6. The peak-period headway between train arrivals is 5 min. Note that the effective width equals the clearance between handrails. Alternatives: Two ft end stairs or three The desirable standard is that the platform be cleared before the next peak-train arrival or sooner. The trial design width selected for the departure peak will be tested for its ability to accommodate the arriving peak train.
Flow variable 4 or 0.
QUEUING LOS The provision of inadequate space where pedestrian waiting occurs can cause problems ranging from temporary inconvenience and discomfort to crowd-induced falls and other hazards.
Queuing often occurs in transit stations on platforms; at escalators, stairs, turnstiles, doors, and ticket dispensing machines; and at any location where passengers may be delayed, even momentarily. The spacing between persons in linear queues is surprisingly uniform and consistent with behavioral studies of personal space preferences. Queuing LOSs based on pedestrian area occupancies and relative degrees of mobility within the waiting space are summarized in Table B 0.
Standing, resricted circulation by C 0.
Standing without contact possible, but movement is severely restricted and D 0. Standing without contact, movement E 0. Threshold potentially dangerous crowd pressure.
Close contact with all. Uncomfortable 2 or 0. Potential F less less less less for shock waves in mass crowds, fall, other hazards. Uncomfortable and psychologically disturbing.
Potential for shock waves in mass crowds, falls, other hazards. Like stairs, platforms have different functions and characteristics during departing and arriving peak conditions. During the departing peak, the platform acts as a storage area for passengers waiting for a train and as a movement space for passengers distributing themselves along the platform.
TS analysis is useful for determining the average per person area available for these purposes, for comparison with the LOS standards. The net effective platform width is determined by deducting a 1. There are a number of alternatives for the placement of stairs on platforms.
Uniform spacing of stairs on the platform provides for a more even distribution of passengers, but the stairs take up more platform space. End locations allow wider stairs with no footprint on the platform, but walking distances are longer and uneven distribution of passengers occurs.
TS analysis provides the means of analyzing various placement alternatives for stairs and the potential impact on pedestrian LOS. It also allows a section-by-section analysis of the platform where there are irregularly spaced stairs or variations in platform conditions, such as differences in occupancy. Example: Determine the pedestrian LOS of a ft m -long, ft 6. Note that the average walking distance is half the maximum walking distance from either end of the platform. Solutions: The platform will be evaluated using the TS method.
The net effective area is determined by deducting the in mm safety edge along the length of the platform and any stairway footprint. All the departing passengers will both walk and wait on the platform. Walk times are determined by the average walking distance from each stairway to the adjacent platform sections, and an assumed "restrained" walking speed of 3. The average wait time, assuming that passenger arrivals on the platform are uniform, is half of the 5-min headway time, or 2.
In alternative a there is no stairway footprint, but in alternative b the stairway footprint must be deducted from the net platform area, compensated by a reduction in average walking distances. There are examples of more crowded platforms in the New York City transit system.
In practice, it is known that passengers tend to cluster around platform access stairs, so the center stairway design will also result in a more even distribution of passengers on the platform. This also results in a more even distribution of passengers on the train, a desirable objective to improve passenger perceptions of service. Escalator and moving walkway technology has evolved over a period of years, and there are examples of well-maintained escalator installations that have provided continuous service for more than 50 years.
Pedestrian planning process Ch. Assessing demand for walking Ch. Measuring walkability Ch. Prioritising schemes Ch.
Implementation Ch. Appendix 2 Signface design details Community involvement in scheme development Ch. Crossings Ch. Measures to guide pedestrians Ch. Lighting the pedestrian network Ch. Maintaining the pedestrian network Ch. Making best use of facilities Ch. Figure 1. For some groups, it is the primary means of moving around their community independently .
The right to walk is a fundamental element in a considerable number of public policies. Although its contribution to transport objectives is often underestimated, its importance must not be ignored . The main pieces of legislation relating to walking are the Local Government Act , the Trac Control Devices Rule  and the Land Transport Road User Rule  where pedestrians are specically dierentiated from vehicle trac. There are also relevant Rules on the use of land under the Resource Management Act in regional and district plans.
Law includes not only legislation, but also common law, which is understood and accepted by everyone and dened by law court judgments. Common law includes everyones duty to care for their own safety and to avoid causing harm to others. Under common law, everyone has the right to travel unimpeded on all public roads, except where there are legal restrictions such as those prohibiting pedestrians from motorways. Road controlling authorities RCAs are obliged to safeguard this right for all lawful road users, including pedestrians.
The Local Government Act requires that wheelchair accessible kerb crossings be provided whenever any urban road or footpath is being reconstructed. Bylaws can cover activities both on footpaths beside roads and on o-road paths such as through parks. They can also be used for activities on the road that may aect pedestrian safety or mobility, for example vehicle speed limits and parking.
Its overall vision is: by , New Zealand will have an aordable, integrated, safe, responsive and sustainable transport system. Broader objectives aim to enhance economic, social and environmental well-being through: improving access and mobility, including walking and cycling protecting and promoting public health ensuring environmental sustainability assisting safety and personal security assisting economic development.
Key principles include: creating an integrated mix of transport modes taking a long-term sustainable approach ensuring high standards of health, safety and security responding to the diverse needs of transport users.
Integrated transport planning is embodied in Land Transport NZs objective, which is to allocate resources in a way that contributes to an integrated, safe, responsive and sustainable land transport system .
When allocating funds, Land Transport NZ must consider a range of issues including environmental sustainability and public health. Walking is an essential part of an integrated transport plan and is an integral part of achieving the governments vision for land transport. As a result, Land Transport NZ invests in a range of walking and cycling activities, such as providing nancial help to RCAs for strategic plans and walking and cycling projects.
It articulates a vision, goals, priorities and principles as outlined in Figure 2. This is accompanied by an implementation plan  that sets out a method for achieving the strategy. RLTCs are legally required to represent a range of transport perspectives, including walking. Although regional councils do not directly manage the roads, all projects and strategies in their regions must take the RLTS into account, and regional councils may play a variety of roles with regard to walking, such as strategic planning, coordinating schemes and promoting walking.
They need to be consistent with the NZTS and should reect the priorities for action in Getting there on foot, by cycle. While Transit NZ is the RCA for state highways, some local authorities manage their area state highways on its behalf. Organisations such as airport companies, port companies and the Department of Conservation are also RCAs.
RCAs have direct responsibility for the road system. They usually own the roads and public paths, and often through contractors build, improve and maintain them. RCAs have powers to regulate road user behaviour, such as by banning parking, creating one-way streets and installing trac signals. RCAs are also required by Land Transport NZ to produce strategic plans detailing the projects and packages they intend to carry out.
These will contain projects that encourage more people to walk or cycle see section 2. The relevant regional and local strategies and plans in relation to walking are: Regional: regional land transport strategy regional walking strategy regional road safety plan regional growth strategy 3 23 The planning and policy context regional policy statement regional travel demand management strategy under the regional land transport strategy.
Local: local transport strategies local walking strategic plans neighbourhood accessibility plans road safety strategies and plans safety management systems district and city plans long-term council community plans asset management plans codes of practice design guides open space access plans travel demand management strategies.
Actions to provide for or promote walking should take account of, and coordinate with, other nontransport strategies and policies for [30, , ]: health tourism heritage environmental protection urban design and form planning and development regeneration social inclusion recreation economic development injury prevention. To ensure eective coordination, more than one agency may be involved. This is a priority in Getting there on foot, by cycle.
Similarly, health care professionals may give green prescriptions to patients, advising them to be physically active as part of their health care management. The governments Sustainable development for New Zealand programme of action seeks to make New Zealand cities healthy, safe and attractive places where business, social and cultural life can ourish. This will be achieved through better-integrated decisionmaking, improved infrastructure and better urban design. These two goals are not usually mutually exclusive.
A greater number of pedestrians should result in increased visibility and act as a reminder to other road users to consider them. The objectives in local walking strategic plans should reect the objectives in the NZTS and in Getting there on foot, by cycle.
A key objective is improving the environment for walking. Reducing the speed and volume of other trac may do as much to help pedestrian safety as providing new infrastructure .
Consequently, local walking strategic plans need to be supported by more general trac, road safety and transport strategies. As cyclists and pedestrians needs are dierent , any combined strategies and action plans should reect these dierences. While each strategic plan should reect local conditions, there will be common features in them all [29, 36, ].
Table 2. District and city plans should also reect the plans objectives. How the walking strategic plan ts with other national and local strategies.
The benets of the walking strategic plan. Local information on pedestrian activity and safety. Outline of the current local environment for pedestrians quantitative and qualitative , including personal security issues. The local authoritys achievements to date. The authoritys broad vision for walking. All of the above interact, but addressing individual issues in isolation is unlikely to address all.
A holistic view is needed to ensure the maximum benets. In the main urban centres, on roads subject to urban speed limits, about one in three road deaths 32 percent were pedestrians. Annually, an average of 45 pedestrians are killed and are reported injured on New Zealand roads. While the number of pedestrians killed is trending downwards, reported pedestrian injuries have been unchanged for the last 15 years, despite the decline in walking by children who are the biggest group at risk .
Reported number of pedestrians injured per , pop Year Pedestrians injured per , pop Pedestrians killed per , pop Figure 3.
Trac speed is a signicant issue for pedestrians. The faster a driver goes, the more dicult it is for them to avoid hitting a pedestrian in their path. The faster the speed at which a pedestrian is hit, the more serious their injuries will be. One in three pedestrian fatalities occurs on roads with a rural speed limit, but only one in 15 pedestrian injuries occurs in these localities . This reects the fragility of pedestrians when hit by cars at higher speeds. More information on the eect of vehicle speeds on safety is contained in Down with speed .
Those aged over 75 are involved in 18 percent of pedestrian fatalities, although they represent only six percent of the population . Their likelihood of being struck is also greater than most other age groups . Those aged under 19 represent 46 percent of injuries, yet make up only 30 percent of the population . While road crash statistics are invaluable in identifying the sites and pedestrian groups with particular road safety issues, they do not provide any qualitative measures such as how safe a pedestrian feels, the risks they take and the reasons for their choice of route .
Nor do they indicate which routes are perceived to be so dangerous that pedestrians either completely avoid them or take extra care in them. Moreover, pedestrian crashes and injuries that do not involve a motor vehicle or another road user, or that happen away from the roadway eg falls due to poorly maintained footpaths often go unreported. They tend to be elderly as shown in Figure 3. Fall on same level from slipping, tripping, and stumbling Hospital admissions Age group years Figure 3.
Slips Slips are caused by inadequate friction between the foot and the pavement. This can be due to the material and construction of the sole of the shoe, the nature of the pavement surface, the presence of lubricants such as water, any surface treatments such as sealers, and the maintenance of the surface. Polished hard surfaces can become slippery due to the presence of ne dust or grit as well as by water. A pedestrians gait also aects the friction required for stability.
Running requires more friction than walking. When people know a surface is slippery they can compensate by taking shorter steps and avoiding sudden movements.
Because of the complex nature of friction measurement and performance, international requirements are not uniform. Table 2 of the code provides guidance on the suitability of a variety of materials. For footpath surfaces, the sliding skid resistance of a wet surface is the critical test.
This is measured by a pendulum tester using a rubber slider to simulate the sole of a shoe [, ]. Ocial guidance for applying these standards is provided in An introductory guide to the slip resistance of pedestrian surface materials HB and Slip resistance of pedestrian surfacesguide to the reduction of slip hazards.
The only matter under the control of those providing the infrastructure is the specication of the surface material and its treatment and maintenance. It is advisable to provide a safety factor by exceeding the requirements of the standards, thereby catering for activities such as running that require more friction. Trips A pedestrian trips when the surface being walked upon has an abrupt increase in height that is large enough to snag the toe of a shoe and cause the pedestrian to lose balance .
The study of human gait shows that the toe is generally the lowest part of the swinging foot . However, just before initial contact the foot pivots so that the heel touches rst.
The toe is the last part of the foot to lift o at the start of the swing and the heel is rst to make contact at the end of the swing. Hence it is most often the toe that makes contact with the obstacle.
Gait analysis indicates that the clearance between toe and ground during the swing phase is small. This relates to persons walking on an even surface, where the expectation is to place each foot on a surface of the same level as the previous step, as on paved footpaths and roadways. A study by Murray  found toe to ground clearance in the range of mm with a mean of 14 mm. Based on this data, a rise in height of 14 mm would represent a trip hazard to 50 percent of the people tested.
It is estimated that 10 percent of those tested would trip if the rise was 6 mm. Unfortunately, older pedestrians who are most at risk lift their feet the least, and are least likely to recover if they catch their toe on an obstacle. The relative probability of catching the toe is shown in gure 3. Based on this analysis, 6 mm is commonly used as the intervention standard for sudden changes in footpath level, but a stricter standard would appear to be justied.
This would also explain why tactile paving strips laid on the footpath surface with a rise of only ve mm chamfered at 45 degrees have been the subject of complaints from older pedestrians.
Depressing tactile paving tiles slightly into the surface would appear to be benecial. Trips can also occur when a stair riser is taller than expected, or not noticed. This is particularly likely where there is a single step. Bird, Sowerby and Atkinson  analysed the number of third party insurance claims for accidents on footways with respect to the height of footway defect.
The exposure of pedestrians to defects of diering heights was also taken into account. It was found The principles of pedestrian network planning that the probability of an accident occurring increases logarithmically until a defect height of about 40mm, after which the probability remains constant.
At higher step heights the defect is more likely to be noticed so the risk does not increase further. This is illustrated in gure 3. Stumbles Stumbles happen when the surface is higher or lower than expected. Stumbles become more likely as undulations in the surface rise above 12 mm . They are, therefore, useful for utility travel.
There are concerns associated with these devices as their users travel faster than those on foot but slower than motorised vehicles. Evidence suggests that the risk of serious injury to the user reduces when devices are used on the footpath.
However, exposure to risk is dicult to quantify as there is little data on trip numbers and signicant under-reporting of minor injuries. Some overseas evidence suggests that up to 15 percent of all injuries to pedestrians on the footpath occur while they are using skates or skateboards .
Many users of these devices are children who are already especially vulnerable. There is little research on the design of infrastructure for them .
Designing for pedestrians: a level-of-service concept
The Road User Rule  currently allows a person using a wheeled recreational device to use either the footpath or the roadway. There does not appear to be a strong case for prohibiting their use on footpaths in New Zealand, as there is no evidence of a high degree of risk to either users or pedestrians, although there may be a perception of danger, especially for older pedestrians.
There may, therefore, be a case for banning the use of these devices in specic areas of high pedestrian use, or separating them from pedestrians.It is important in this condition to evaluate average passenger waiting times, queue lengths and queuing areas, and the overall platform clearance time. A description of the performance indicators to be used in monitoring the plans progress in achieving its objectives.
They are, therefore, useful for utility travel. Fruin everywhere you go. This is in sharp contrast to the well-planned and heavily utilized 3. Women may be more likely to accompany children on trips to school and may have less access to the family vehicle. The principles of pedestrian network planning Photo 3. Table 2 of the code provides guidance on the suitability of a variety of materials.
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