The Developmental Test of Visual Perception, 2nd edition (DTVP-2), is a sub- test raw-and scale scores as presented in the manuals). nd. Edition. (DTVP-2). Publisher/Date: • PRO-ED, Inc., Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Reliability estimates presented in the manual have been substantially-. the DTVP-2, despite the fact that the manual makes it clear that the: “ test results are merely observations, not diagnoses ”18 and. “investigation must be made.
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Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-2) On subtests 2, 4, 6, and 8 continue testing until the ceiling point is Testing Manual. The entire DTVP-2 test has an Intraclass Correlation Coefficiency(ICC) of , and . In the original manual for the DTVP-2, they recommended using standard . Eye-Hand Coordination. Position in Space. Spatial Relations. Figure-Ground. Visual Closure. Visual-Motor Speed. Form Constancy. General Visual Perception .
The battery, which is designed for use with individuals ages through , has empirically established reliability and validity. The normative sample consists of 1, adolescents and adults residing in 19 states; demographic characteristics approximate the current census data. The DTVP-A is an extension and redevelopment of this classic work, designed for use with adolescents and adults.
The DTVP-A can be administered by psychologists, neuropsychologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, regular and special educators, and diagnosticians who are interested in examining the visual-perceptual status and visual-motor integration skills of adolescents and adults. Administration is individual and takes approximately 25 minutes. The DTVP-A is especially useful in the evaluation of the neuropsychological integrity of TBI and stroke patients where right-hemisphere function may be at issue.
Normed through age 75, the DTVP-A has sufficient floor or easy items to allow accurate assessment of even individuals with severe TBI and other neurologically impaired individuals. The reliability of the various subtests and index scores indicates that the DTVP-A will be sensitive to improvement over the course of treatment.
The subtests and indexes also will suggest areas of emphasis in cognitive and fine motor rehabilitation. The DTVP-A is particularly useful in distinguishing true visual-perceptual deficits from problems solely with complex eye-hand or perceptual-motor actions.
The DTVP-A may also assist in differential diagnosis of various of the dementias in elderly patients, providing a baseline for normal aging changes in perception and perceptual-motor skills against which the referred patient may be referenced. Standard scores allow examiners to make comparisons across subtests.
A standard score or scaled score is calculated by taking the raw score and transforming it to a standard scale.
A standard score is based on a normal distribution with a mean and a standard deviation. RESULTS The research has been divided into 3 main areas: 1 Descriptive statistics regarding general information about sample group in terms of age, gender, handedness and geographical area.
Details of each topic are as follows: Descriptive Statistics Results These results include general information on characteristics of the sample in age, gender, handedness, residence Determination of Normative Values of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception DTVP-2 in Thai Children and geographical area. Before running all of the data,testing for normality by using SPSS software found that the dataset was normally distributed in every age range, except the dataset for the age range of years old.
However, at this age range a transformation was used which is applied to data that is not normally distributed so that the new, transformed data is normally distributed by taking the log of the data. The standardized raw scores and percentiles of the DTVP-2 in this study show by specific age ranges of 6 months for ages 4 years — 7 years, 11 months; and 1 year age ranges for ages 8 years — 10 years, 11 months.
developmental test visual perception: adolescent and adult (dtvp-a)
However,this paper shows only the example of Standard Scores and Percentiles for Ages 4. The conversion of the sums of standard scores to quotients for composites is shown in Table 5, the conversion of the raw scores to age equivalents for subtests is shown in Table 6, the guidelines for interpreting standard scores are shown in Table 7, and the guidelines for interpreting composite quotients are shown in Table 8.
This means that when the ages of children are higher, their scores on the test are higher. It explains the Principle of Human Development that has a correlation to two significant issues: maturation and learning, which lead children to develop their abilities according to their age. Visual development will progress according to their maturity and how they learn. Normally, visual perception progresses faster when children are in the age range from 3 — 6 years old until they reach 11 years old.
Maturity, or full development in visual perception depends on visual experiences from the environment and learning done by the children. Likewise, the rate of the development differs from one child to another. Development begins when they are just one-week old.
For example, children express their ability to perceive in terms of differentiating between objects which have different figures, and complicated forms. Children are able to differentiate between a circle, triangle and square from an early age. It had been shown that children have the visual discrimination ability to be able to draw a circle when they are 3 years old, a square when they are 4 years old, a triangle when they are 5 years old and a diamond shape when they are 6 years old.
These examples demonstrate that the children undergo visual motor integration. Eye — Hand Coordination-EH; 2. Position in Space-PS; 3. Copying-CO; 4. Figure — Ground-FG; 5. Spatial Relations-SR; 6. Visual Closure- VC; 7. Forms Constancy-FC , and the details show that the score intervals of the test were similar in each dimension for every age range in Thai children and US children in the original version of the DTVP When considering the details of the DTVP-2, by classifying them into visual motor perception: sub-tests 1, 3, 5, and 7 and non-visual motor perception: sub-tests 2, 4, 6 and 8, the researcher noted that, in this test, both motor related and non-motor related perception are globally standardized.
The test includes use of pencils, a response booklet, as well as picture books which characterized the test with straight lines or easily understandable basic shaded objects.
Every child has familiarity with horizontal lines, vertical lines, triangles, squares, geometric figures and varieties of dots, etc. These patterns help children to understand easily, and all of the children who completed the test are in school.
Since schools are believed to be information centers, the children get used to seeing a variety of pictures similar to those that are used in the test. Moreover, visual perception is one of the global developments that occur according to the Development Policy. Therefore, Thai children have opportunities to perceive a variety of pictures so that they are familiar with the pictures used in the test. Additionally, all sub-tests, except visual motor speed,do not have time restrictions the test.
This allows children to complete the test freely and there is with no need to rush. These are the causes of the score intervals on each sub-test, except for visual motor speed, in the age ranges: 4. In the age range 4. In the age ranges from 8.
In the age range from 8. In the age range from These factors include cultural and environmental experiences. The first reason is that Thai children enter school at the age of 3. Entering school early provides Thai children with a venue to explore a variety of activities which encourage them to get involved in diverse dimension of writing. Benbow 36gave examples of writing elements and activities in schools which would encourage those elements such as using crayons, painting, scissoring, bead stringing, clay molding, lacing board activities, manuscript and cursive writing, practice of controlled line-drawing, e.
Moreover, Donaghue and Lamme 37 mentioned that writing readiness in children requires 6 factors which include 1 the development of small muscle; 2 eye — hand coordination; 3 the ability to hold utensils or writing tools; 4 the capacity to form basic strokes smoothly, such as circles and lines; 5 letter perception, including the ability to recognize forms, to notice likeness and differences, to infer the movements necessary for the production of forms, and to give accurate verbal descriptions of what has been seen; and 6 the orientation to printed language which involves the visual analysis of letters and words along with right — left discrimination.
Exner 38 said that in kindergarten, children interact through a variety of activities to train their fine motor skills, e. In kindergarten and primary school, the main activities children participate in enhance their fine motor skills. In addition, these characteristics are considered in the test of visual- motor speed with the use of pencils to draw in a provided space; the test requires drawing two straight lines in big circles and crossing lines in small squares.
In this case, the children need to have some levels of writing readiness, such as, the ability to hold a pencil with correct posture directions , strength of hand muscles, visual perception control, and eye — hand coordination. The activities provided by the school encourage the use of hand elements in terms of preparing Thai children in writing readiness. These factors might cause Thai children, who enter school early at the age of 2 or 3 , to have a tendency to scores higher on visual- motor speed than US children.
The age range from 8.
Writing ability is very significant for children in this age range. Additionally, one characteristic of study activities in this age range is setting a time frame to completeaassignment neatly. Graham and McAvoy cited in Amundson, 37, said that children who have delayed writing abilities will take a long time for assignments, and will be show at taking notes in the classroom.
Their writing speed will be slow when they receive more writing assignments or complicated assignments. This causes Thai children in primary school to have a long daily hour, from 8. It is evident that the Thai alphabet is different from the English alphabet.
The Thai alphabet is composed of 44 letters, 21 vowels and 4 tonal marks while the English alphabet has 26 letters.
There are more writing difficulties encountered in the Thai alphabet than the English alphabet. More letters are needed in writing to form words, and the Thai language restricts the position of vowels to specific location. A vowel can only be located on the top of the correct letter.
Results from cross—culturestudiesmentioned that the complexity of Chinese letters, which consist of more letters than the English alphabet accelerates the development of visual motor perception, resulting in Chinese children demonstrating higher performance on the test than the American children Therefore, it is possible that although Thai letters have are more complicated, with repeated training in writing over long period, Thai children acquired writing abilities.
They are able to control their writing direction more quickly and effectively. Thus, on the visual- motor speed test which requires speed to draw the line in the provided spaces;Thai children have a tendency to score higher on the visual motor- speed sub-test. However, this research has found differentiation in presenting age equivalences.
That is to say, the results of this study only presented the age equivalence scores on a 6 months basis not on a monthly basis as shown in US data. This is due to an inadequate number of the sample whocontributed monthly ages. Therefore, the calculations of age equivalence on a monthly basis were inapplicable. However, there is one point that was detected from the study: Thai children have a tendency to score higher on the visual motor- speed sub-test than US children from the age ranges 4 — 5 years old and 8 — 11 years old.
The results can be classified into the following explanations based on cultural and environmental experiences are classified into the following explanations: 1 Thai children enter school at early age.
All of these factors may encourage writing elements resulting in Thai children developing writing readiness quickly and showing a tendency to score higher in VMS subtest.
This study only presents age equivalence on a 6 month basis.
Therefore, it is recommended for the next study to control bias, especially selection of samples groups to organize a plan in collecting and distributing data by the age ranges of the sample groups for each month. Guntayuong, C. International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences; ; 3 : Hau-Yi N G, Pauline. The bender visual motor gestalt test: across-cultural a. Critical review of visual perceptual tests frequently administered by pediatric therapists. Schneck, MC.
Visual perception. Case- Smith Ed. Occupational Therapy for children. St Louis: Mosby; , pp. Case-Smith Ed.
Louis: Elsevier; , 5th ed. Chan, PLC. Chow, SMK. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy; ; 59 4 , Rogow, SM. Visual perception problems of visually impaired children with developmental disabilities. Review; ; 24 2 , Osterling, J.This is due to an inadequate number of the sample whocontributed monthly ages. The DTVP-A is particularly useful in distinguishing true visual-perceptual deficits from problems solely with complex eye-hand or perceptual-motor actions.
Subtests Subtest 1-Copying: Individuals are shown a simple figure and asked to draw it on a piece of paper. In the age range from However, this research has found differentiation in presenting age equivalences. Related Papers. Intuptim, W. Administration, scoring and testing manual.
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