Handbook of Chlor-Alkali Technology. Volume I: Fundamentals, Volume II: Brine Thomas F. O'Brien, Tilak V. Bommaraju, Fumio Hine. Pages PDF. The Handbook of Chlor-Alkali Technology provides comprehensive and While membrane cells are considered state-of-the-art, the handbook does not ignore mercury and diaphragm cells. . Download Sample pages 1 PDF ( KB). The work is recommended to students; chlor-alkali tech- nologists; .. The purpose of this handbook is to elucidate the basic chemistry and chemical engin- .
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Handbook of Chlor-Alkali Technology: Volume I: Fundamentals, Volume II: Brine Treatment and Cell Operation, Volume III: Facility Design and Product. Modern Chlor-Alkali Technology Volume 8 EDITED BYJohn Moorhouse Rhodia Ltd Hollingwood Chesterfield Derbyshire S43 2PB. Köp Handbook of Chlor-Alkali Technology av Thomas F O'Brien, Tilak V Bommaraju, PDF-böcker lämpar sig inte för läsning på små skärmar, t ex mobiler.
This proposal would put to good use the existing mercury transportation and handling infrastructure, and would avoid adding new metallic mercury to the environmental inventory.
On the other hand, if cellrooms are phased-out as they reach the end of their economic life, there is every possibility that mining operations in Europe can cease for some 20 years and then only resume at the much lower levels likely then to be required to meet a much smaller future global market. The choice, of course, rests with governments.
Any further action would be based on a purely precautionary approach. The industry accepts that such further actions are required in the social and political circumstances of Western Europe today. It is committed to further emissions reductions, and to eschew the installation of any incremental capacity based on mercury cell technology.
There are many scenarios combining emissions reduction and the decommissioning of existing plants.
Table of contents
Any scientific analysis of the environmental merits and demerits of different scenarios has to start from the fact that, given the large amount of mercury in the environmental cycle and the slow rates of transfer to geological reservoirs such as deep-sea sediment , the environmental measure of a phase-out scenario is not simply the rate of emission in any given year nor the number of years for which emissions continue until phase-out is complete.
The importance of this concept will become clearer as the phase-out strategy options are discussed in succeeding sections of this chapter.
The economic and social aspects are addressed next. Phase-out Issues for Mercury Cell Technology 27 2. After all, they say, the environment is more important than mere money.
We also recognise that if business does not make profits there will not be any money to spend! So I make no apology for addressing the economics of cellroom conversion.
Like all major capital investment projects, the financial case is based on the financial return, however measured, and the availability of finance.
Examples are legion and it is not the main purpose of this chapter to go into the technical and economic details of cellroom conversions. The capital cost of conversion for a typical mercury cellroom includes not only the cost of the electrolysers but also, as a minimum base case, the inextricably linked capital costs associated with caustic recycle, caustic evaporation, brine secondary purification and dechlorination and additional gas cooling.
In many cases additional capital will probably be required for new rectiformers and possibly new electrical supply and switchgear , changes to the supply of utilities and gaseous HCl, new building structures, decommissioning and site remediation.
Handbook of Chlor-Alkali Technology
All costs are quoted in US dollars, not least as these are more or less equivalent to euros at the conversion rates of early The calculation is further complicated inasmuch as trade-offs exist between capital and operating costs. To achieve phase-out by this capital would have to be spent over the next ten years, i. This is very 28 Modern Chlor-Alkali Technology roughly equivalent to the total capital budget of the whole West European industry, i.
This is a claim that seems far easier to make than to substantiate. There are indeed electrical energy savings to be made by conversion to membrane technology, and these savings have tended to increase as membrane technology has advanced. As always, the exact balance will be highly site-specific.
After discussing electrolysis and the principal types of cell, this, too, gives rather brief coverage to brine and product processing. It then follows on with descriptions of the major derivatives and direct uses of chlorine and a discussion of environmental issues.
The last feature named above has relieved the authors of this work of the obligation to cover applications in any detail. Instead, they provide a concentrated treatment of all aspects of technology and handling directly related to the products of electrolysis.
It covers the field from a history of the industry, through the fundamentals of thermodynamics and electrochemistry, to the treatment and disposal of the waste products of manufacture. Membrane cells are considered the state of the art, but the book does not ignore mercury and diaphragm cells. They are considered both from a historical perspective and as examples of current technology that is still evolving and improving. Dear to the heart of a director of Euro Chlor, the book also pays special attention to safe handling of the products, the obligations of Responsible Care R , and process safety management.
Other major topics include corrosion, membranes, electrolyzer design, brine preparation and treatment, and the design and operation of processing facilities. Perhaps uniquely, the book also includes a chapter on plant commissioning.
The coverage of membranes is both fundamental and applied.
The underlying transport processes and practical experience with existing types of membrane both are covered. The same is true of electrolyzer design.He has published over 85 papers and holds 27 patents. The latest generation of electrolysers is designed specifically to operate at higher current densities than had been practicable in the past and to produce cell gases with oxygen contents as low as 0.
Particular attention was paid to the atmospheric emissions, which now dominate, and subsequently to a range of complex issues concerning waste disposal and, not least, the appropriate fate of the 12 tonnes of pure mercury contained in operating cellrooms. The ionic concentration and the thickness of this layer will have an effect on the water content, the Fig.
Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Chemical Engineering Principles. The authors, each with extensive experience in chlor-alkali technology but with diverse backgrounds and fields of specialization, achieve both breadth and depth. The exact date will depend on the availability of capital and on macroeconomic factors more under the control of governments than industry.
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