The fundamentals of production planning and control/Stephen N. Chapman. . ISBN X. 1. Production planning-Automation. 2. Production. This focused book concentrates on planning and control; it answers the question: “what parts of operations management do we really need to know? It does not. CHAPTER 1 Overview of Planning and Control. 1. CHAPTER 2 Forecasting Fundamentals. CHAPTER 3 Sales and Operations Planning. CHAPTER 4 .

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Fundamentals of Production Planning and Control by Stephen N. Chapman, , available at Book Depository with free delivery. Production planning and control is a tool available to the management to Thus production planning and control can be defined as the “direction and coordination For short-term periods of up to one year, fundamental capacity is fixed. Fundamentals of Production Planning and Control book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. This focused book.

Customer Contact. Related to the issue of timing is the fact that the cus- tomer in a service environment is often much more involved in the design of the "product" or output of the experience. In addition, the contact point is often the person who will be delivering the service. In that respect the service worker can be thought of as both a sales person and an operations worker.

A key dimension of quality in service organizations is that much of the quality may be intangible, making it much more difficult to effectively measure.

It is impossible, for example, to inventory a haircut.

Many people in manufacturing may be taken aback by the image of inventory as a luxury, given that they are often pressed for inventory re- duction, but in fact inventory in the perspective of manufacturing plan- ning can be thought of as "stored capacity. It will, in this context, allow the firm to provide a somewhat smoother application of the output processes, thereby making them more efficient and often more effective.

Among the most critical of these factors are the volume and variety of the expected output, and those is- sues in turn tend to be largely driven by the amount of influence the customer has in the design of the product or service delivered to them from the organi- zation's processes.

In some cases the issue of customer design influence is a part of the firm's basic strategy, but in some cases it is a reaction to market dri- vers.

Fundamentals of Production Planning and Control

Many automobiles, for example, are downloadd as finished goods from a dealer's lot primarily because the customers do not wish to wait for an auto- mobile that is ordered with the exact options they want. That extent of cus- tomer influence tends to be described by the following categories, listed here in the order of influence, from less to more: Make-to-Stock MTS. As the name implies, these are products that are completely made into their final form and stocked as finished goods.

The collective customer base may have some influence on the overall design in the early product design phase, but an individual customer has essentially only one decision to make once the product is made-to download or not to download. Again, these download patterns can influence overall product design changes, but not usually in the case of an individual customer.

Ex- amples of these products are very common, as found in virtually all retail stores such as hardware, clothing, office supplies, and so on.

Assemble-to-Order ATO. In this case the customer has some more in- fluence on the design, in that they can often select various options from pre designed subassemblies. The producer will then assemble these options into the final product for the customer. Automobiles and personal computers are good examples of these types of products. If a customer orders an automobile from a dealer, for example, they can often choose from a variety of colors, body styles, engines, transmissions, and other "pure" options, such as cruise control.

In some industries this approach is sometimes called Package-to-Order, in that it is the packaging that is customer specified. In products such as breakfast cereals or baking products flour, baking soda, etc.

A service example of ATO may be in some restaurants, where the customer can specify their choice of side dishes for their meal.

They may have little option as to how those side dishes are prepared, but do have some say in which ones they select. Make-to-Order MTO. This environment allows the customer to spec- ify the exact design of the final product or service, as long as they use stan- dard raw materials and components. An example might be a specialty furniture maker or a bakery. In the bakery, for example, a customer may specify a special cake be produced for an occasion such as a birthday or anniversary.

Handbook of Production Scheduling

They have many design options for the cake and its decora- tions, although they may be limited to certain sizes of cake pans, cake fla- vorings, and so on. Engineer-to Order ETO. In this case the customer has almost com- plete say in the design of the product or service. They are often not even limited to the use of standard components or raw material, but can have the producer deliver something designed "from scratch.

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There are essentially five categories given to describe the process used in production, although in practice there are several combinations of these basic types. The five cate- gories typically given are: Project.

A project-based process typically assumes a one-of-a-kind pro- duction output, such as building a new building or developing a new soft- ware application. Projects are typically large in scope and will often be managed by teams of individuals brought together for this one-time activ- ity based on their particular skills. The planning and control approaches to managing a project are so specialized they are not covered in this book. The reader is referred to one of the many good references specifically fo- cused on the management of projects, such as "5-Phase Project Manage- ment" by Weiss and Wysocki.

Job processes job shop processes are typically designed for flexibility.

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The equipment is often general purpose, meaning it can be used for many different production requirements. The skill in deliver- ing the production as specified by the customer is generally focused on the workers, who tend to be highly skilled in a job process.

This environ- ment is generally focused for production of a large variety of special production requirements, as may be found in an ETO or MTO design environment. The high variety of design requires the flexible processes and higher skills of the workforce.

Work in these environments will often move in a very "jumbled" fashion because of the high variability in de- signs for each job. Again because of the variability in design and work requirements, information linkages tend to be informal and loose. An example is a general-purpose machine shop or a specialty bakery or caterer. Batch or Intermittent Processing. Many of the production facilities in the world today fall into this "middle of the road" category.

The equip- ment tends to be more specialized than the equipment in job shops, but still flexible enough to produce some variety in design.

As more of the "skill" to produce the product rests in the more specialized equipment, the workers do not usually need to be quite as skilled as the workers in the job shops. Be the first to ask a question about Fundamentals of Production Planning and Control.

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There are clearly some major differences between a service and manufacturing environment, and these differences do impact the formal- ity and approach taken in the application of these principles, but often the principles do still apply.

An annual anal Take the example of a quarter-pound hamburger produced in a fast-food restaurant. Repetitive or Flow Processing.

site Renewed Refurbished products with a warranty. Related to the issue of timing is the fact that the cus- tomer in a service environment is often much more involved in the design of the "product" or output of the experience.