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Environmental impact assessment by Larry W. Canter, , McGraw-Hill edition, in English - 2nd ed. Impact Assessment. Volume 13, - Issue 3. Published online: 6 Feb Article. Environmental impact assessment: the state of the art. the worldwide practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA). Over 15 I Corresponding author for this article is Dr. Larry W. Canter, George Lynn Cross.
The purpose of this paper is to identify scientific methods and techniques which can be used in environmental impact studies. A complete review of applicable approaches is beyond the scope of this paper, therefore, only examples will be cited. A framework for the conduct of environmental impact studies is shown in Figure 1 Canter, Key elements include basic activities, preparation of a description of the affected environment, impact prediction and assessment, selection of the preferred action from alternative plans based on environmental effects and other considerations, and appropriate environmental documentation through the writing of an EIA or EIS.
There are. Downloaded by [ Framework f o r Envirorimental Impact Studies. Interdisciplinary study teams should include persons who can address impacts on the physical and chemical. Canter and Hill. Major tasks include the procurement of existing baseline information as well as the planning and conduct of necessary field studies. This requires identification of environmental factors and their organization into physical-chemical.
Fischer and Davies. Basic activities also include the identification of potential environmental impacts from alternative plans. Another aspect is the formation of an interdisciplinary study team appropriate for each study in each geographical location. Baram and Webster. Networks refer to structured approaches in which initial and subsequent environmental changes are linearly displayed Sorenson.
Soil Conservation Service. Numerous checklists of environmental factors are available Dee. Several approaches can be utilized. Voorhees and Associates.. Table 1 lists example references on data sources and planning. Interaction matrices are directed toward identifying the potential impacts of project features on identified environmental factors Leopold. An important need is to recognize interrelationships among environmental factors.
Every attempt should be made to quantify anticipated changes and to use scientific rationale for significance assessment. Assessment of impact significance can be based on environmental standards for air.
Fish and Wildlife Service. Table 3 lists some example references for biological impact prediction and assessment. Interpretation of changes can be based on recommended standards or criteria. Impact prediction and assessment can be considered relative to environmental components. A key limitation is the absence of techniques for quantifying habitat changes.
Environmental Impact Assessment by L.W. Canter
Highly sophisticated approaches involve the use of energy systems diagrams. Impact prediction and assessment for the cultural environment involves eonsideration of changes in historic and archeological resources as well as cultural attributes such as visual quality. Biological impact prediction is primarily based on habitat or land use changes or more sophisticated approaches such as the Habitat Evaluation Procedure U.
Table 2 lists some example references for various models. Several methodologies exist for describing the visual quality of an area. Significance interpretation should be based on appropriate laws. Socio-economic impact prediction can be based on models ranging from simple extrapolation techniques to complicated econometric approaches.
Table 4 identifies some example references for the cultural environment. Army Corps of Engineers. Several types of alternatives should be considered. Table 5 lists some example references for socio-economic impact prediction and assessment. Liberal usage should be made of visual display materials such as maps.
Alternatives can be scaled or ranked from best to worst in terms of each of the decision factors. Scientific referencing should be utilized for procured environmental setting information as well as impact prediction techniques.
Glossaries of technical terms can also be useful in documentation. Systematic methodologies should be used to compare alternatives. Table 6 identifies some methodologies which can be useful in the selection process. One of the best aids is the development of an extensive outline prior to initiating the writing process.
Chalmers and Anderson. Usage of scientific methods and techniques is expected to increase due to the CEQ regulations and the growing emphasis on public participation. Value judgments are used throughout the enviromental impact process. These studies must be founded on these principles in order to achieve an appropriate consideration of the environment in project planning and decision-making. Post-audit analysis refers to studies needed to verify whether or not predicted impacts actually occurred.
Another reason for an increasing usage of scientific methods and techniques is the increasing knowledge base for conduct of environmental impact studies. In fact. There is no substitute for the application of the scientific process and appropriate technology in environmental impact studies. Only the first two items will be addressed from the non-prioritized listing. If post-audit analyses can be made. Appropriate public participation techniques should be selected based on the objectives of the public participation effort.
Active public participation programs encourage practitioners to utilize the most appropriate methods and techniques in environmental impact studies. Some research needs related to environmental impact studies are listed in Table 7. This directed research should lead to cost reductions in project planning as a result of new information on the environmental effects of various project types.
One of the long-term benefits of the environmental impact process is that needed research continues to be identified by agencies.
Wk9-03 EIA - process-by Larry Canter.pdf - Environmental...
TABLE 1: Van Weringh. Keown and Weathersby -Catalog of information sources for environmental baseline description. Naval Environmental Support Office Sources of environmental information are listed.
Rau and Wooten Comprehensive handbook for conducting environmental impact studies. Study Planning Burns -Proceedings of symposium on planning for environmental impact studies. Ward -Book on planning. Turner -Workbook of atmospheric dispersion calculations from multiple source types. TABLE 2: Environmental Protection Agency -Discussion of singlesource.
Surface Water Brown abstracts on the hydrodynamics and modeling of heated effluents. Nemorow -Book on modeling water quality resulting from organic pollution. Ozturk -Model of dissolved oxygen in estuaries. Overton -Modeling of effects of land use changes on streamflow quantity and quality. Hammer and MacKichan -Overview of quantity and quality aspects of surface and ground water. Prickett -Summary of ground water modeling techniques. Orlob -Literature review of mathematical modeling of surface water impoundments.
Velz -Book on modeling water quality resulting from organic. Walker -Literature review of irrigation return flow models. TABLE 3: Army Corps of Engineers O --Systematic methodology for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem evaluations. Magrab -Book on noise prediction from variety of source types. Environmental Protection Agency -Procedures for predicting impacts of urban stormwater. Fish and Wildlife Service -Procedural manual for estimating and comparing development project impacts on fish and wildlife resources.
Ecosystem Models Downloaded by [ Najarian and Harleman -Model of nitrogen-cycle dynamics in an estuarine system.
Green -Model for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem with submodels on wetlands. Ostrofsky and Duthie -Methodology for modeling productivity in reservoirs.
Mueller -Discussion of burdening capacity of ecosystems. Fletcher and Busnel -Book summarizing effects of noise on aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Bovee and Cochnauer -Methodology using weighted criteria to assess impacts on stream habitats. Assessment King -Description of methods for conducting archeological surveys. Perez -Discussion of persistence limits in ecological systems.
Sharma -Conference proceedings on determining the significance of biological impacts. Harper -Use-oriented method for visual quality evaluation of the coastal zone. Bureau of Land Management Description of visual resource contrast rating system. Visual Quality Bagley. Bureau of Land Management b Description of method for upland visual resource inventory and evaluation.
Forest Service -Description of visual management system used for the Soil Conservation Service -Description of procedure for landscape resource quality. Forest Service studies in the northwestern United States. Finsterbush and Wolf -Book on methodologies for social impact assessment. Specific Projects Downloaded by [ Christiansen Methodology for addressing social impacts of land development projects. Muller -Methodology for addressing economic impacts of land development projects. Willeke -Socioeconomic impacts from wastewater management plans.
Muller -Methodology for addressing fiscal impacts of land development projects. Sellers and North -Matrix for evaluation of trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives in water resources planning. Tamblyn and Cederborg -Matrix for nuclear power plant site selection.
Matrices Downloaded by [ TABLE 6: Checklists Ahmed. Modeling Hill -Resource allocation model for evaluation of waste Sondheim -Scaling checklist for evaluation of a proposed dam project. Gertz -Ranking checklist coupled with non-parametric statistical analysis.
Babb and Hickey -Use of computer graphics for evaluation of impacts from conventional energy systems. Miscellaneous Hydrologic Engineering Center -Use of grid cell banks in environmental impact assessment. Lavine -Energy analysis model for conducting environmental cost-benefit analyses for transportation actions. Rubinstein and Horn -Methodology for including risk analysis in environmental impact assessment. Report No. Nuclear Engineering Design. IWR Contract Report Impacts of Hydrologic Modification on Water Quality.
Environmental impact assessment
Environmental Protection Agency. Tennessee Valley Authority. Aesthetics in Environmental Planning. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory.
Probability-of-Use Curve for lnstream Flow Assessments: Army Engineer Institute for Water Resources. Fort Collins. Development and Evaluation of Weighted-Criteria. Fort Belvoir. Handbook of Variables for Environmental Impact Assessment. Ann Arbor Science Publishers.
Department of Commerce. Nuclear Technology. Environmental Impact Assessment. Ann Arbor. New York. Hydrology and Hydrodynamics A Bibliography with Abstracts.
North Carolina. Research Triangle Park. National Technical Information Service. Oklahoma report submitted to U.
TRW Systems Group.. Part 3. Redondo Beach. Thermal Pollution. Final Task report. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
University of Oklahoma. Procedural Recommendations. Council on Environmental Quality. Federal Register.. National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations.
The Urban Institute. Bureau of Reclamation. URI Current Practices. Battelle-Columbus Laboratories. Engineering and Research Center. Social Impacts of Land Development. Social Assessment and Resource Policy: Lessons from Water Planning. Final Report. November Westview Press. The Mitre Corporation.
Baton Rouge. Coastal Environments. Natural Resources Journal. Cultural Resources-Planning and Management. An Approach to Assessing Environmental Impacts. Environmental Quality Assessment in Multiobjective Planning. Final Report to U. Coastal Landforms and Scenic Analysis: A Review. Journal of Environmental Management. Bureau of Reclamation.. College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering. University of Arizona.
Abt Associates. T h e Methodology of Social Impact Assessment. Hutchinson and Ross Publishing Co. State University of New York. King -Description of methods for conducting archeological surveys. Harper -Use-oriented method for visual quality evaluation of the coastal zone.
Bureau of Land Management Description of visual resource contrast rating system. Bureau of Land Management b Description of method for upland visual resource inventory and evaluation.
Forest Service -Description of visual management system used for the 19 Forest Service studies in the northwestern United States. Soil Conservation Service -Description of procedure for landscape resource quality. Finsterbush and Wolf -Book on methodologies for social impact assessment. Frendeway, Monarchi, and Taylor Model for regional impacts of population, employment, manufacturing, commerce, and service industries.
Specific Projects Downloaded by [ Christiansen Methodology for addressing social impacts of land development projects. FitzPatrick , et al. Fitzsimmons, Stuart, and Wolf Methodology for development of social well-being account for water resources projects.
Muller -Methodology for addressing fiscal impacts of land development projects. Muller -Methodology for addressing economic impacts of land development projects. Mumphrey, Thayer, and Wagner -Socioeconomic impacts from outer continental shelf oil and gas development. Willeke -Socioeconomic impacts from wastewater management plans. Matrices Downloaded by [ Sellers and North -Matrix for evaluation of trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives in water resources planning.
Tamblyn and Cederborg -Matrix for nuclear power plant site selection. Burnham, Nealey, and Maynard Weighting checklist for combining societal and technical judgements relative to nuclear power plant siting. Gertz -Ranking checklist coupled with non-parametric statistical analysis. Sondheim -Scaling checklist for evaluation of a proposed dam project. Modeling Hill -Resource allocation model for evaluation of waste24 water management alternatives.
Lavine -Energy analysis model for conducting environmental cost-benefit analyses for transportation actions. Babb and Hickey -Use of computer graphics for evaluation of impacts from conventional energy systems.
Duckstein, et al. Hydrologic Engineering Center -Use of grid cell banks in environmental impact assessment. Rubinstein and Horn -Methodology for including risk analysis in environmental impact assessment. Babb, M. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. Baram, R. Bhutani, J. Bishop, A. Bovee, K. Thermal Pollution, Part 3.
Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia. Burnham, J. Busse, A. Canter, L. Chalmers, J. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado. Coastal Environments, Inc. Daneke, G. Dee, N. Dickens, R. Duke, K. Finsterbush, K. Fischer, D. FitzPatrick, M. Fitzsimmons, S. Frendeway, J. Gertz, S. Gilliland, M. Golden, J. Green, K. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.
Guldberg, P. Harper, D.
Hill, D. Hydrologic Engineering Center Army Corps of Engineers, Davis, California. Inhaber, H. Keeney, R. Keown, M. M, U.
King, T. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. Lavine, M. Leopold, L.
Geological Survey, Washington, D. Magrab, E. Meyers, B. Mueller, P. Muller, T. Mumphrey, A. Naval Environmental Support Office, Nemerow, N. O'Neill, R. Orlob, G. Ostrofsky, M. Ott, W. Overton, D. Ozturk, Y. Phillips, K. Prickett, T. Rau, J. Risk Analysis in Environmental Studies.
Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. Schrender, G. Schwind, P. Sellers, J. Shapiro, M. Sharma, R. Sondheim, M. Stalnaker, C. Stout, G. Tamblyn, T. Turner, D. Workbook of' Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates, Pub. AP, U.Part 3.
Naval Environmental Support Office Sources of environmental information are listed.
A key limitation is the absence of techniques for quantifying habitat changes, particularly when considering long-term effects. Advanced Wastewater Treatment Systems. Dewi Dwirianti Hadiwinoto.